Tips Tinted Kereta

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Written on 9:16 PM by Amilrash

http://wandmsmith.co.uk/PhotoAlbums/album_1192304344/OASIS_65791_Tinted_Film_Roll.jpg
Sumber: Mesra.net
kalau nak ikut pendapat peribadi...Vkool adalah produk terbaik. ini memandangkan Vkool dicipta pada asalnya utk kegunaan space ship ke bulan dan juga pesawat pejuang angkatan tentera amerika. ianya juga jernih, maka boleh di pasang di cermin besar hadapan. tapi ini cerita 8 tahun lepas.

hari ini, begitu banyak jenama filem tinted yg bagus dan berkualiti, tidak kurang sekadar imitation. begitu juga harga yang ditawarkan sangat menarik dan berbeza2 antara setiap jenama.

saya tidak boleh cadangkan apa2 jenama, terpulang pada poket anda dan pilihan peribadi. tp biler memasang tinted glass pastikan

1) ianya tidak terlalu gelap atau terlalu kilat hingga tidak nampak penumpang di dalam.
2) ianya mempunyai waranti utk elakkan jadi menggelembung atau bubbling

2 fungsi utama tinted ialah untuk keselesaan dan keselamatan
1) keselesaan - melambatkan kemasukan cahaya panas
2) keselamatan - cerman tidak pecah berderai ketika kemalangan dan menyukarkan pencuri untuk memecah masuk

tips paling utama utk menguji filem tinted - pasangkan spot light dan rasakan serta merta samada ianya panas atau suam2.... kalau leh rasa panas, cuba produk lain.



Zionis

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Written on 7:06 PM by Amilrash


:-((((
khaibar khaibar ya yahud.....

Antara gambar2 yang menyemarakkan kemarahan orang islam!! Israel memang kejam! Sama2 lah kita doakan kesejahteraan rakyat islam Palestin. Doakan juga kemusnahan Israel!! Allahuakbar!!!

Racing

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Written on 8:07 PM by Amilrash



Racing



K kar1

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Written on 7:59 PM by Amilrash



K kar

Singapore Car 21

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Written on 7:11 PM by Amilrash



Singapore Car



AutoShow I

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Written on 7:00 PM by Amilrash



AutoShow

Amazing!!!

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Written on 7:00 PM by Amilrash



Amazing!!!

Funny II

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Written on 6:53 PM by Amilrash



Funny II

Funny Video

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Written on 6:51 PM by Amilrash



Funny Video

Why You Need Insurance

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Written on 6:42 PM by Amilrash

Why You Need It

Cars are expensive, and car accidents are really expensive. In addition to car damage, there are also medical bills to consider. When thinking about the cost of a collision, you need to keep in mind that a car accident may involve more than one car -- that can easily double the cost of the damage. And, if each car has multiple passengers and they all get injured, you see how collision costs add up.

Insurance helps you cover those costs. Basically, you pay for an insurance policy, which is cheaper than the costs you'd likely incur because of an accident. Then, if you have an accident, the policy covers some of the costs associated with it. What your insurance policy covers depends on the type of coverage you buy.
Types of Coverage

The type of coverage you get depends on the laws in your state (most states have some required minimum auto insurance laws), the value of your car, and how much of your own money you're willing to spend if you get into an accident.

* Collision coverage is pretty basic: it pays for damages to your car if you hit something.
* Liability coverage is required by most states. It covers property damage and injuries to others caused by your car. So, if you drive through your neighbor's fence, collision coverage covers the damage to your car and liability coverage covers the damage to the fence. Liability coverage is what you need if you're in an accident and it's your fault.
* Medical coverage covers medical expenses that are the result of an accident. If you broke your wrist while driving through your neighbor's fence, this coverage would take care of it.
* Comprehensive coverage covers damage to your car that's not the result of a collision. This is the kind of coverage you'd want if a tree fell on your car, or if it were damaged in a flood.
* Personal Injury Protection is very similar to medical coverage. The difference is that medical coverage covers everyone injured in an accident, while Personal Injury Protection only covers you. It's required coverage in many states; medical coverage tends to be optional.
* Uninsured motorist coverage takes car of damage to your car if it is hit by a driver who doesn't have liability insurance.
* Underinsured motorist coverage will pay for damages to your car if it's hit by someone who doesn't have enough insurance to pay for the damage. For example, if your car gets hit by someone with only $2,000 worth of liability coverage and there's $3,000 worth of damage to your car, underinsured motorist coverage pays the difference.
* Rental reimbursement will pay for you to rent a car while yours is in the shop due to an accident.

Who Pays For What?
What's New Car Insurance?
When you buy a new car, you should consider getting new car insurance. If a car is totaled in an accident, most insurance companies will only pay what the car is worth, which tends to be much less than what you paid for the car new, leaving you out a lot of cash. New car insurance pays for the full value of the car new.

In an accident, the type of coverage that comes into play depends on who is at fault. The person who causes the accident is the one whose insurance pays for all the damages. So, if you just drive through your neighbor's fence, your insurance will pay -- and as a result, your insurance rates will go up. However, if you drive through your neighbor's fence because someone rear-ended you and sent your car flying, the insurance of the person who hit you would pay for all the damages.
What Do You Need?

The type of coverage you get depends the laws in your state (most states have some required minimum auto insurance laws), the value of your car, and how much of your own money you're willing to spend if you get into an accident.

You should always get enough insurance to cover the value of your car -- especially if you still owe money on it. Otherwise, the car could be totaled and you'd still be making payments on it. That means that if you have an expensive car, you should get a lot of coverage. If it's a cheap car, you can buy less. You also should take into account how much money you have in savings. If you have enough money to handle unexpected medical expenses, lost work days and renting a car, you can probably get less coverage.

Also look at other insurance you have. Your medical insurance may cover injuries received in a car accident. If that's the case, you can decrease the medical coverage on your car insurance. Likewise, your homeowners or renters insurance may cover damage to your car.
What Should You Pay?

What you pay for car insurance is a made up by a number of complex factors. Basically, your insurance rates are based on how much coverage you want and how likely the insurance company thinks it is that you'll have an accident. As a result, safe and experienced drivers pay less for insurance than 16-year-olds with speeding tickets. Also, how expensive your car is and the type of car it is will determine your insurance rates. A 20-year-old station wagon is a lot cheaper to insure than a brand new sports car, because that 20-year-old wagon is cheaper to fix and, according to insurance companies, less likely to be in an accident. Other factors, such as where you live and how often you drive, will also play a role in determining your costs.
Bring Your Costs Down

There a re a lot of ways you can bring your insurance costs down. One is by having a larger deductible. A deductible is part of your insurance policy that you agree to pay. For example, if you have a $1,000 deductible and are in an accident that causes $2,000 worth of damage, you'd pay $1,000 and your insurance would pay $1,000. A large deductible will bring down your insurance costs, but it will mean that in some accidents, your insurance won't pay a dime.

If the damage to your car is less than the cost of your deductible, you'll have to pay it all. When shopping for coverage, don't get a deductible that's so large you can't pay it, and always keep an amount equal to your deductible in your savings account. You'll never know when you may need it.

You can also bring down your car insurance costs by lessening the odds that you'll be in an accident. See if your insurance company will lower your rate if you take a defensive driving course. If you're still in school, see if they offer good-student discounts. Also, if you drive less, you'll be less likely to be in an accident. If your car's parked on campus during the week, don't pay for insurance that assumes you're driving it daily. If you do drive daily, look for ways to decrease your time behind the wheel -- take the bus, walk, and bum rides with friends, then let your insurance company know you're driving less so they can adjust your rate.
Place Your Bets

In the end, car insurance is a bet. You pay a monthly fee to an insurance company. They're betting that you won't get into an accident. You're hoping that you won't, but betting that you will. If you "win," the insurance company will pay your accident costs. If you're not in an accident, the insurance company wins because they get to keep your money. Losing this bet isn't bad, though. You won't have to deal with being in an accident, and the longer you lose the bet by not getting into a wreck, the less you'll have to pay the insurance company. But, the day you're in an accident, you'll be glad you're covered.

Why You Need Insurance

0

Written on 6:42 PM by Amilrash

Why You Need It

Cars are expensive, and car accidents are really expensive. In addition to car damage, there are also medical bills to consider. When thinking about the cost of a collision, you need to keep in mind that a car accident may involve more than one car -- that can easily double the cost of the damage. And, if each car has multiple passengers and they all get injured, you see how collision costs add up.

Insurance helps you cover those costs. Basically, you pay for an insurance policy, which is cheaper than the costs you'd likely incur because of an accident. Then, if you have an accident, the policy covers some of the costs associated with it. What your insurance policy covers depends on the type of coverage you buy.
Types of Coverage

The type of coverage you get depends on the laws in your state (most states have some required minimum auto insurance laws), the value of your car, and how much of your own money you're willing to spend if you get into an accident.

* Collision coverage is pretty basic: it pays for damages to your car if you hit something.
* Liability coverage is required by most states. It covers property damage and injuries to others caused by your car. So, if you drive through your neighbor's fence, collision coverage covers the damage to your car and liability coverage covers the damage to the fence. Liability coverage is what you need if you're in an accident and it's your fault.
* Medical coverage covers medical expenses that are the result of an accident. If you broke your wrist while driving through your neighbor's fence, this coverage would take care of it.
* Comprehensive coverage covers damage to your car that's not the result of a collision. This is the kind of coverage you'd want if a tree fell on your car, or if it were damaged in a flood.
* Personal Injury Protection is very similar to medical coverage. The difference is that medical coverage covers everyone injured in an accident, while Personal Injury Protection only covers you. It's required coverage in many states; medical coverage tends to be optional.
* Uninsured motorist coverage takes car of damage to your car if it is hit by a driver who doesn't have liability insurance.
* Underinsured motorist coverage will pay for damages to your car if it's hit by someone who doesn't have enough insurance to pay for the damage. For example, if your car gets hit by someone with only $2,000 worth of liability coverage and there's $3,000 worth of damage to your car, underinsured motorist coverage pays the difference.
* Rental reimbursement will pay for you to rent a car while yours is in the shop due to an accident.

Who Pays For What?
What's New Car Insurance?
When you buy a new car, you should consider getting new car insurance. If a car is totaled in an accident, most insurance companies will only pay what the car is worth, which tends to be much less than what you paid for the car new, leaving you out a lot of cash. New car insurance pays for the full value of the car new.

In an accident, the type of coverage that comes into play depends on who is at fault. The person who causes the accident is the one whose insurance pays for all the damages. So, if you just drive through your neighbor's fence, your insurance will pay -- and as a result, your insurance rates will go up. However, if you drive through your neighbor's fence because someone rear-ended you and sent your car flying, the insurance of the person who hit you would pay for all the damages.
What Do You Need?

The type of coverage you get depends the laws in your state (most states have some required minimum auto insurance laws), the value of your car, and how much of your own money you're willing to spend if you get into an accident.

You should always get enough insurance to cover the value of your car -- especially if you still owe money on it. Otherwise, the car could be totaled and you'd still be making payments on it. That means that if you have an expensive car, you should get a lot of coverage. If it's a cheap car, you can buy less. You also should take into account how much money you have in savings. If you have enough money to handle unexpected medical expenses, lost work days and renting a car, you can probably get less coverage.

Also look at other insurance you have. Your medical insurance may cover injuries received in a car accident. If that's the case, you can decrease the medical coverage on your car insurance. Likewise, your homeowners or renters insurance may cover damage to your car.
What Should You Pay?

What you pay for car insurance is a made up by a number of complex factors. Basically, your insurance rates are based on how much coverage you want and how likely the insurance company thinks it is that you'll have an accident. As a result, safe and experienced drivers pay less for insurance than 16-year-olds with speeding tickets. Also, how expensive your car is and the type of car it is will determine your insurance rates. A 20-year-old station wagon is a lot cheaper to insure than a brand new sports car, because that 20-year-old wagon is cheaper to fix and, according to insurance companies, less likely to be in an accident. Other factors, such as where you live and how often you drive, will also play a role in determining your costs.
Bring Your Costs Down

There a re a lot of ways you can bring your insurance costs down. One is by having a larger deductible. A deductible is part of your insurance policy that you agree to pay. For example, if you have a $1,000 deductible and are in an accident that causes $2,000 worth of damage, you'd pay $1,000 and your insurance would pay $1,000. A large deductible will bring down your insurance costs, but it will mean that in some accidents, your insurance won't pay a dime.

If the damage to your car is less than the cost of your deductible, you'll have to pay it all. When shopping for coverage, don't get a deductible that's so large you can't pay it, and always keep an amount equal to your deductible in your savings account. You'll never know when you may need it.

You can also bring down your car insurance costs by lessening the odds that you'll be in an accident. See if your insurance company will lower your rate if you take a defensive driving course. If you're still in school, see if they offer good-student discounts. Also, if you drive less, you'll be less likely to be in an accident. If your car's parked on campus during the week, don't pay for insurance that assumes you're driving it daily. If you do drive daily, look for ways to decrease your time behind the wheel -- take the bus, walk, and bum rides with friends, then let your insurance company know you're driving less so they can adjust your rate.
Place Your Bets

In the end, car insurance is a bet. You pay a monthly fee to an insurance company. They're betting that you won't get into an accident. You're hoping that you won't, but betting that you will. If you "win," the insurance company will pay your accident costs. If you're not in an accident, the insurance company wins because they get to keep your money. Losing this bet isn't bad, though. You won't have to deal with being in an accident, and the longer you lose the bet by not getting into a wreck, the less you'll have to pay the insurance company. But, the day you're in an accident, you'll be glad you're covered.

History About Car

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Written on 6:39 PM by Amilrash

History

Main article: History of the automobile

Although Nicolas-Joseph Cugnot is often credited with building the first self-propelled mechanical vehicle or automobile in about 1769 by adapting an existing horse-drawn vehicle, this claim is disputed by some, who doubt Cugnot's three-wheeler ever ran or was stable. Others claim Ferdinand Verbiest, a member of a Jesuit mission in China, built the first steam-powered vehicle around 1672 which was of small scale and designed as a toy for the Chinese Emperor that was unable to carry a driver or a passenger, but quite possibly, was the first working steam-powered vehicle ('auto-mobile').[5][6] What is not in doubt is that Richard Trevithick built and demonstrated his Puffing Devil road locomotive in 1801, believed by many to be the first demonstration of a steam-powered road vehicle although it was unable to maintain sufficient steam pressure for long periods, and would have been of little practical use.

In Russia, in the 1780s, Ivan Kulibin developed a human-pedalled, three-wheeled carriage with modern features such as a flywheel, brake, gear box, and bearings; however, it was not developed further.[7]

François Isaac de Rivaz, a Swiss inventor, designed the first internal combustion engine, in 1806, which was fueled by a mixture of hydrogen and oxygen and used it to develop the world's first vehicle, albeit rudimentary, to be powered by such an engine. The design was not very successful, as was the case with others such as Samuel Brown, Samuel Morey, and Etienne Lenoir with his hippomobile, who each produced vehicles (usually adapted carriages or carts) powered by clumsy internal combustion engines.[8]

In November 1881 French inventor Gustave Trouvé demonstrated a working three-wheeled automobile that was powered by electricity. This was at the International Exhibition of Electricity in Paris.[9]

Although several other German engineers (including Gottlieb Daimler, Wilhelm Maybach, and Siegfried Marcus) were working on the problem at about the same time, Karl Benz generally is acknowledged as the inventor of the modern automobile.[8]

An automobile powered by his own four-stroke cycle gasoline engine was built in Mannheim, Germany by Karl Benz in 1885 and granted a patent in January of the following year under the auspices of his major company, Benz & Cie., which was founded in 1883. It was an integral design, without the adaptation of other existing components and including several new technological elements to create a new concept. This is what made it worthy of a patent. He began to sell his production vehicles in 1888.
Karl Benz
A photograph of the original Benz Patent Motorwagen, first built in 1885 and awarded the patent for the concept

In 1879 Benz was granted a patent for his first engine, which had been designed in 1878. Many of his other inventions made the use of the internal combustion engine feasible for powering a vehicle.

His first Motorwagen was built in 1885 and he was awarded the patent for its invention as of his application on January 29, 1886. Benz began promotion of the vehicle on July 3, 1886 and approximately 25 Benz vehicles were sold between 1888 and 1893, when his first four-wheeler was introduced along with a model intended for affordability. They also were powered with four-stroke engines of his own design. Emile Roger of France, already producing Benz engines under license, now added the Benz automobile to his line of products. Because France was more open to the early automobiles, initially more were built and sold in France through Roger than Benz sold in Germany.

In 1896, Benz designed and patented the first internal-combustion flat engine, called a boxermotor in German. During the last years of the nineteenth century, Benz was the largest automobile company in the world with 572 units produced in 1899 and because of its size, Benz & Cie., became a joint-stock company.

Daimler and Maybach founded Daimler Motoren Gesellschaft (Daimler Motor Company, DMG) in Cannstatt in 1890 and under the brand name, Daimler, sold their first automobile in 1892, which was a horse-drawn stagecoach built by another manufacturer, that they retrofitted with an engine of their design. By 1895 about 30 vehicles had been built by Daimler and Maybach, either at the Daimler works or in the Hotel Hermann, where they set up shop after falling out with their backers. Benz and the Maybach and Daimler team seem to have been unaware of each other's early work. They never worked together because by the time of the merger of the two companies, Daimler and Maybach were no longer part of DMG.

Daimler died in 1900 and later that year, Maybach designed an engine named Daimler-Mercedes, that was placed in a specially-ordered model built to specifications set by Emil Jellinek. This was a production of a small number of vehicles for Jellinek to race and market in his country. Two years later, in 1902, a new model DMG automobile was produced and the model was named Mercedes after the Maybach engine which generated 35 hp. Maybach quit DMG shortly thereafter and opened a business of his own. Rights to the Daimler brand name were sold to other manufacturers.

Karl Benz proposed co-operation between DMG and Benz & Cie. when economic conditions began to deteriorate in Germany following the First World War, but the directors of DMG refused to consider it initially. Negotiations between the two companies resumed several years later when these conditions worsened and, in 1924 they signed an Agreement of Mutual Interest, valid until the year 2000. Both enterprises standardized design, production, purchasing, and sales and they advertised or marketed their automobile models jointly—although keeping their respective brands.

On June 28, 1926, Benz & Cie. and DMG finally merged as the Daimler-Benz company, baptizing all of its automobiles Mercedes Benz as a brand honoring the most important model of the DMG automobiles, the Maybach design later referred to as the 1902 Mercedes-35hp, along with the Benz name. Karl Benz remained a member of the board of directors of Daimler-Benz until his death in 1929 and at times, his two sons participated in the management of the company as well.

In 1890, Emile Levassor and Armand Peugeot of France began producing vehicles with Daimler engines and so laid the foundation of the automobile industry in France.

The first design for an American automobile with a gasoline internal combustion engine was drawn in 1877 by George Selden of Rochester, New York, who applied for a patent for an automobile in 1879, but the patent application expired because the vehicle was never built and proved to work (a requirement for a patent). After a delay of sixteen years and a series of attachments to his application, on November 5, 1895, Selden was granted a United States patent (U.S. Patent 549,160 ) for a two-stroke automobile engine, which hindered, more than encouraged, development of automobiles in the United States. His patent was challenged by Henry Ford and others, and overturned in 1911.

In Britain there had been several attempts to build steam cars with varying degrees of success with Thomas Rickett even attempting a production run in 1860.[10] Santler from Malvern is recognized by the Veteran Car Club of Great Britain as having made the first petrol-powered car in the country in 1894[11] followed by Frederick William Lanchester in 1895 but these were both one-offs.[11] The first production vehicles in Great Britain came from the Daimler Motor Company, a company founded by Harry J. Lawson in 1896 after purchasing the right to use the name of the engines. Lawson's company made its first automobiles in 1897 and they bore the name Daimler.[11]

In 1892, German engineer Rudolf Diesel was granted a patent for a "New Rational Combustion Engine". In 1897 he built the first Diesel Engine.[8] Steam-, electric-, and gasoline-powered vehicles competed for decades, with gasoline internal combustion engines achieving dominance in the 1910s.

Although various pistonless rotary engine designs have attempted to compete with the conventional piston and crankshaft design, only Mazda's version of the Wankel engine has had more than very limited success.

Production
Ransom E. Olds.

The large-scale, production-line manufacturing of affordable automobiles was debuted by Ransom Olds at his Oldsmobile factory in 1902. This concept was greatly expanded by Henry Ford, beginning in 1914.

As a result, Ford's cars came off the line in fifteen minute intervals, much faster than previous methods, increasing production by seven to one (requiring 12.5 man-hours before, 1 hour 33 minutes after), while using less manpower.[12] It was so successful, paint became a bottleneck. Only Japan black would dry fast enough, forcing the company to drop the variety of colors available before 1914, until fast-drying Duco lacquer was developed in 1926. This is the source of Ford's apocryphal remark, "any color as long as it's black".[12] In 1914, an assembly line worker could buy a Model T with four months' pay.[12]
Portrait of Henry Ford (ca. 1919)

Ford's complex safety procedures—especially assigning each worker to a specific location instead of allowing them to roam about—dramatically reduced the rate of injury. The combination of high wages and high efficiency is called "Fordism," and was copied by most major industries. The efficiency gains from the assembly line also coincided with the economic rise of the United States. The assembly line forced workers to work at a certain pace with very repetitive motions which led to more output per worker while other countries were using less productive methods.

In the automotive industry, its success was dominating, and quickly spread worldwide seeing the founding of Ford France and Ford Britain in 1911, Ford Denmark 1923, Ford Germany 1925; in 1921, Citroen was the first native European manufacturer to adopt the production method. Soon, companies had to have assembly lines, or risk going broke; by 1930, 250 companies which did not, had disappeared.[12]

Development of automotive technology was rapid, due in part to the hundreds of small manufacturers competing to gain the world's attention. Key developments included electric ignition and the electric self-starter (both by Charles Kettering, for the Cadillac Motor Company in 1910-1911), independent suspension, and four-wheel brakes.
Ford Model T, 1927, regarded as the first affordable American automobile

Since the 1920s, nearly all cars have been mass-produced to meet market needs, so marketing plans often have heavily influenced automobile design. It was Alfred P. Sloan who established the idea of different makes of cars produced by one company, so buyers could "move up" as their fortunes improved.

Reflecting the rapid pace of change, makes shared parts with one another so larger production volume resulted in lower costs for each price range. For example, in the 1930s, LaSalles, sold by Cadillac, used cheaper mechanical parts made by Oldsmobile; in the 1950s, Chevrolet shared hood, doors, roof, and windows with Pontiac; by the 1990s, corporate drivetrains and shared platforms (with interchangeable brakes, suspension, and other parts) were common. Even so, only major makers could afford high costs, and even companies with decades of production, such as Apperson, Cole, Dorris, Haynes, or Premier, could not manage: of some two hundred American car makers in existence in 1920, only 43 survived in 1930, and with the Great Depression, by 1940, only 17 of those were left.[12]

In Europe much the same would happen. Morris set up its production line at Cowley in 1924, and soon outsold Ford, while beginning in 1923 to follow Ford's practise of vertical integration, buying Hotchkiss (engines), Wrigley (gearboxes), and Osberton (radiators), for instance, as well as competitors, such as Wolseley: in 1925, Morris had 41% of total British car production. Most British small-car assemblers, from Abbey to Xtra had gone under. Citroen did the same in France, coming to cars in 1919; between them and other cheap cars in reply such as Renault's 10CV and Peugeot's 5CV, they produced 550,000 cars in 1925, and Mors, Hurtu, and others could not compete.[12] Germany's first mass-manufactured car, the Opel 4PS Laubfrosch (Tree Frog), came off the line at Russelsheim in 1924, soon making Opel the top car builder in Germany, with 37.5% of the market.[12]

See also: Automotive industry

Fuel and propulsion technologies
Auto rickshaws in New Delhi run on Compressed Natural Gas

See also: Alternative fuel vehicle

Most automobiles in use today are propelled by gasoline (also known as petrol) or diesel internal combustion engines, which are known to cause air pollution and are also blamed for contributing to climate change and global warming.[13] Increasing costs of oil-based fuels, tightening environmental laws and restrictions on greenhouse gas emissions are propelling work on alternative power systems for automobiles. Efforts to improve or replace existing technologies include the development of hybrid vehicles, and electric and hydrogen vehicles which do not release pollution into the air.

Petroleum fuels

Main article: Petroleum fuel engine

Diesel

Main article: Diesel engine

Diesel-engined cars have long been popular in Europe with the first models being introduced in the 1930s by Mercedes Benz and Citroen. The main benefit of diesel engines is a 50% fuel burn efficiency compared with 27%[14] in the best gasoline engines. A down-side of the Diesel engine is that better filters are required to reduce the presence in the exhaust gases of fine soot particulates called diesel particulate matter. Manufacturers are now starting to fit[when?] diesel particulate filters filters to remove the soot. Many diesel-powered cars can run with little or no modifications on 100% biodiesel and combinations of other organic oils.

Gasoline

Main article: Petrol engine

2007 Mark II (BMW) Mini Cooper

Gasoline engines have the advantage over diesel in being lighter and able to work at higher rotational speeds and they are the usual choice for fitting in high-performance sports cars. Continuous development of gasoline engines for over a hundred years has produced improvements in efficiency and reduced pollution. The carburetor was used on nearly all road car engines until the 1980s but it was long realised better control of the fuel/air mixture could be achieved with fuel injection. Indirect fuel injection was first used in aircraft engines from 1909, in racing car engines from the 1930s, and road cars from the late 1950s.[14] Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) is now starting to appear in production vehicles such as the 2007 (Mark II) BMW Mini. Exhaust gases are also cleaned up by fitting a catalytic converter into the exhaust system. Clean air legislation in many of the car industries most important markets has made both catalysts and fuel injection virtually universal fittings. Most modern gasoline engines also are capable of running with up to 15% ethanol mixed into the gasoline - older vehicles may have seals and hoses that can be harmed by ethanol. With a small amount of redesign, gasoline-powered vehicles can run on ethanol concentrations as high as 85%. 100% ethanol is used in some parts of the world (such as Brazil), but vehicles must be started on pure gasoline and switched over to ethanol once the engine is running. Most gasoline engined cars can also run on LPG with the addition of an LPG tank for fuel storage and carburettor modifications to add an LPG mixer. LPG produces fewer toxic emissions and is a popular fuel for fork-lift trucks that have to operate inside buildings.
The hydrogen powered FCHV (Fuel Cell Hybrid Vehicle) was developed by Toyota in 2005

Biofuels

Main articles: Biofuel, Ethanol fuel, and biogasoline

Ethanol, other alcohol fuels (biobutanol) and biogasoline have widespread use an automotive fuel. Most alcohols have less energy per liter than gasoline and are usually blended with gasoline. Alcohols are used for a variety of reasons - to increase octane, to improve emissions, and as an alternative to petroleum based fuel, since they can be made from agricultural crops. Brazil's ethanol program provides about 20% of the nation's automotive fuel needs, as a result of the mandatory use of E25 blend of gasoline throughout the country, 3 million cars that operate on pure ethanol, and 6 million dual or flexible-fuel vehicles sold since 2003.[15] that run on any mix of ethanol and gasoline. The commercial success of "flex" vehicles, as they are popularly known, have allowed sugarcane based ethanol fuel to achieve a 50% market share of the gasoline market by April 2008.[16][17][18]

Electric

Main articles: Battery electric vehicle, Hybrid vehicle, and Plug-in hybrid

The Henney Kilowatt, the first modern (transistor-controlled) electric car.
2007 Tesla electric powered Roadster
Tata/MDI OneCAT Air Car
A CNG powered high-floor Neoplan AN440A, run on Compressed Natural Gas

The first electric cars were built around 1832, well before internal combustion powered cars appeared.[19] For a period of time electrics were considered superior due to the silent nature of electric motors compared to the very loud noise of the gasoline engine. This advantage was removed with Hiram Percy Maxim's invention of the muffler in 1897. Thereafter internal combustion powered cars had two critical advantages: 1) long range and 2) high specific energy (far lower weight of petrol fuel versus weight of batteries). The building of battery electric vehicles that could rival internal combustion models had to wait for the introduction of modern semiconductor controls and improved batteries. Because they can deliver a high torque at low revolutions electric cars do not require such a complex drive train and transmission as internal combustion powered cars. Some post-2000 electric car designs such as the Venturi Fétish are able to accelerate from 0-60 mph (96 km/h) in 4.0 seconds with a top speed around 130 mph (210 km/h). Others have a range of 250 miles (400 km) on the United States Environmental Protection Agency‎ (EPA) highway cycle requiring 3-1/2 hours to completely charge.[20] Equivalent fuel efficiency to internal combustion is not well defined but some press reports give it at around 135 miles per US gallon (1.74 L/100 km, 162 mpg-imp).

Steam

Main article: steam car

Steam power, usually using an oil- or gas-heated boiler, was also in use until the 1930s but had the major disadvantage of being unable to power the car until boiler pressure was available (although the newer models could achieve this in well under a minute). It has the advantage of being able to produce very low emissions as the combustion process can be carefully controlled. Its disadvantages include poor heat efficiency and extensive requirements for electric auxiliaries.[21]

Air

Main article: Compressed-air car

A compressed air car is an alternative fuel car that uses a motor powered by compressed air. The car can be powered solely by air, or by air combined (as in a hybrid electric vehicle) with gasoline/diesel/ethanol or electric plant and regenerative braking. Instead of mixing fuel with air and burning it to drive pistons with hot expanding gases; compressed air cars use the expansion of compressed air to drive their pistons. Several prototypes are available already and scheduled for worldwide sale by the end of 2008. Companies releasing this type of car include Tata Motors and Motor Development International (MDI).

Gas turbine

In the 1950s there was a brief interest in using gas turbine engines and several makers including Rover and Chrysler produced prototypes. In spite of the power units being very compact, high fuel consumption, severe delay in throttle response, and lack of engine braking meant no cars reached production.

Rotary (Wankel) engines

Rotary Wankel engines were introduced into road cars by NSU with the Ro 80 and later were seen in the Citroën GS Birotor and several Mazda models. In spite of their impressive smoothness, poor reliability and fuel economy led to them largely disappearing. Mazda, beginning with the R100 then RX-2, has continued research on these engines, overcoming most of the earlier problems with the RX-7 and RX-8.

Rocket and jet cars

A rocket car holds the record in drag racing. However, the fastest of those cars are used to set the Land Speed Record, and are propelled by propulsive jets emitted from rocket, turbojet, or more recently and most successfully turbofan engines. The ThrustSSC car using two Rolls-Royce Spey turbofans with reheat was able to exceed the speed of sound at ground level in 1997.

Safety

Main articles: Car safety and Automobile accident

Result of a serious automobile accident.

There are three main statistics to which automobile safety can be compared:[22]
Deaths per

billion journeys
Bus: 4.3
Rail: 20
Van: 20
Car: 40
Foot: 40
Water: 90
Air: 117
Bicycle: 170
Motorcycle: 1640
Deaths per

billion hours
Bus: 11.1
Rail: 30
Air: 30.8
Water: 50
Van: 60
Car: 130
Foot: 220
Bicycle: 550
Motorcycle: 4840
Deaths per

billion kilometres
Air: 0.05
Bus: 0.4
Rail: 0.6
Van: 1.2
Water: 2.6
Car: 3.1
Bicycle: 44.6
Foot: 54.2
Motorcycle: 108.9

While road traffic injuries represent the leading cause in worldwide injury-related deaths,[23] their popularity undermines this statistic.

Kambing

1

Written on 5:09 PM by Amilrash

Cantik tak?

Visit to terengganu

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Written on 12:50 AM by Amilrash

Skrang ni kat kg aku dah banyk perubahan tau... Conthnya dulu xda MCD skarang dah ada... skrang ni aku cuma harap panggung wayang dibuka semula kat trg... aku rasa ramai yg duk nanti2 ketibaan saat tuh..

Ikan Paus

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Written on 12:45 AM by Amilrash

Hari ni aku teringat kat kg.... skrang kat kg aku musim banjir.. slalunyer time mcm ni aku gi mancing n tahan taut... slalu gak la aku dpt ikan2 besar..huhu best nyer kalu duk imbas blik time tuh....

Malaysiaku tercinta...

0

Written on 12:42 AM by Amilrash

negara ku... tanah tumpahnya darahku... rahmat bahgia... tuhan kurniakan........

Shot Shoes To Bush Game

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Written on 8:14 PM by Amilrash




Shot Shoes To Bush Game

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Written on 8:14 PM by Amilrash

Kancil Otobot

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Written on 8:10 PM by Amilrash

Tranfomer...:)

Drift king

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Written on 8:07 PM by Amilrash

Fulamak.. cam ID la... Wat kat maner?

Tip Penjagaan Kereta

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Written on 5:19 PM by Amilrash




Tip-tip
Perhatikan tayar cukup angin. Tiada benda pelik melekat di bahagian tayar atau mana-mana bahagian kereta. Jika tayar anda selalu kehilangan tekanan angin bermakna kemungkinan besar paku telah tertembus pada tayar anda. Kenapa tayar kereta tidak pancit terus dan hanya hilang angin sedikit demi sedikit? Kerana tayar kereta menggunakan teknologi tubeless iaitu tanpa tiub dan angin akan masih berada di dalam tayar walaupun tertusuk paku. Selalunya paku berada di bahagian tepi jalan yang ditabur oleh TAUKEY TIUB yang target untuk memancitkan tayar penunggang motor. Oleh itu, jika memandu, janganlah terlalu ke kiri. Lagipun lorong di kiri adalah untuk penunggang motor, basikal dan pejalan kaki.
Sebelum memulakan perjalanan, hidupkan enjin dan tunggu sehingga injin melahu pada kadar RPM yang normal kemudian baru jalan. Sebelum hidupkan injin, onkan suis dan tunggu apa-apa lampu yang sepatutnya padam sebelum injin hidup. Dengan cara ini, enjin anda akan lebih berkuasa di jalan dan menjimatkan minyak serta tahan lebih lama.
Seminggu sekali kalau boleh, periksa lampu brek ketiga dan semua lampu brek. Pastikan ia berfungsi. Buka bonet injin, buka penutup bateri dan periksa air bateri. Pastikan ianya berada pada aras antara minimum dan maksimum. Buka penutup minyak brek (Botol besar dekat body di hadapan pemandu dalam bonet injin), pastikan minyaknya mencukupi. Cari jarum pemeriksa minyak enjin. Untuk kancil ia ada di bahagian depan dekat belt yang bergerak kalau injin hidup (pemegang warna kuning). Cabut dan lapkan minyak di jarum tersebut dan kemudian masukkan kembali jarum tu. Bilang sampai lima dan cabut kembali. Minyak mesti berada pada aras di antara minimum dan maksimum. Kalau bawah daripada minimum, masukkan sedikit minyak injin sehingga ke paras yang saya katakan tadi. Untuk kereta auto, cari jarum yang lebih kurang sama bentuknya tapi berada di sebelah yang bertentangan dengan jarum yang pertama (untuk periksa minyak gear box). Lakukan perkara yang sama seperti yang pertama.
Sebulan sekali, pergi ke pam minyak dan periksa tekanan tayar. Tekanan yang sesuai ada di catatkan di bahagian dalam tiang B (tiang antara pintu depan dan belakang) sebelah pemandu. Periksa juga tekanan tayar simpanan. Setiap 3 bulan (kalau setiap hari guna kereta untuk ke tempat kerja, pergi ke kedai tayar dan rotate tayar mengikut aturan yang sesuai. Jika tayar anda sudah hampir botak, pergi ke kedai tayar dan tukar secepat mungkin. Tayar depan lebih penting kerana kawalan kereta bergantung padanya. Untuk periksa harga tayar, boleh tengok2 di laman web lelong.com.my atau pergi je kedai tayar buat survey dulu baru tukar. Jangan sampai kena tipu beli tayar celup.
Setiap 5,000 km pergi ke workshop, tukar minyak injin (jika gunakan minyak biasa), tukar penapis minyak (oil filter) setiap 2 kali tukar minyak injin dan tukar plag setiap 3 kali tukar minyak injin. Kalau kereta model lama (kancil 660 sehingga 1996) yang pakai “Petnam” atau contact point, suruh meknaik cuci contact point setiap 3 kali tukar minyak injin dan tukar setiap 9 kali tukar minyak injin. Kalau nak buat sendiri pun boleh. Pergi kedai hardware, beli strap wrench atau cup wrench untuk buka oil filter kereta anda. Beli oil filter dalam RM10, minyak hitam shell helix sudah memadai untuk prestasi yang baik dengan harga RM43 untuk botol 3 liter bagi kenderaan bersaiz kecil seperti kancil dan 4 liter untuk kereta bersaiz besar.
Digalakkan setiap bulan anda hantar kereta anda ke kedai cuci kereta atau car wash. Ini penting bagi memastikan semua tempat dalam kereta anda bersih dan kereta anda lambat nampak buruk ditelan masa.
Sayangi kereta anda, jaga kereta anda..

Gino White

0

Written on 9:57 PM by Amilrash



White

Coure

0

Written on 9:41 PM by Amilrash

Coure nih

Gino Back

0

Written on 9:39 PM by Amilrash


Sejibik cam kelisa kan...

Mira Gino

0

Written on 9:36 PM by Amilrash

TV3 &TV9 ONLINE

0

Written on 8:37 PM by Amilrash



TV9

Tinterd1

0

Written on 5:16 PM by Amilrash



Verry strong

Tinted

0

Written on 5:14 PM by Amilrash



Verry expensive....

Bush kena baling kasut

0

Written on 5:12 PM by Amilrash

Fight

0

Written on 12:44 AM by Amilrash



School Boy Fight

Fight

0

Written on 12:42 AM by Amilrash



Stupid Fight

Test 1

0

Written on 12:36 AM by Amilrash



Car

Car

0

Written on 12:36 AM by Amilrash



Car Crash

Test 1

0

Written on 12:35 AM by Amilrash



Danger

Test

0

Written on 12:31 AM by Amilrash



Test Drive

Prototaip

0

Written on 12:18 AM by Amilrash

Ntah nak buat ke tak..... blum tau lg...

Proton 3in1

0

Written on 12:16 AM by Amilrash

Saper punyer kerje nih???

PROTON

0

Written on 12:15 AM by Amilrash

Sketch,,,

Malaysian Sifu

0

Written on 12:14 AM by Amilrash

Ni lotus punyer design

PRTON BARU

0

Written on 12:13 AM by Amilrash


Kalau berminat simpan la duit. Under rm80k jer ni..

Nouvo S

0

Written on 11:50 PM by Amilrash


Manyak pandai bikin oooooo

Art

0

Written on 11:48 PM by Amilrash


Your beautifullll

Dua alam

0

Written on 5:47 PM by Amilrash

Oooyuuuu
ni kalu banjir pun aku redah jer.....:)

My car at Japan

0

Written on 5:46 PM by Amilrash

Fuiyooo

Opti Classic

0

Written on 5:42 PM by Amilrash

Huh

Car

0

Written on 12:21 AM by Amilrash

To past to period hahaha....

Car

0

Written on 12:19 AM by Amilrash


Kereta yg cun...

Ferari

0

Written on 1:40 AM by Amilrash


Huhuaaaa....

Fairlady

0

Written on 1:39 AM by Amilrash

Minat gak.... tp tak mampu....

Mira opti

0

Written on 1:37 AM by Amilrash

Ada saper2 nak jual contact la sy..... 0129475572

Tertangkap

0

Written on 11:32 PM by Amilrash




Jangan jadi camni.... 18 SG

Cakra Alam

0

Written on 11:27 PM by Amilrash



Wat malu jer.... Kantoi....

0

Written on 9:08 PM by Amilrash

merdeka.. merdeka...

0

Written on 9:08 PM by Amilrash


cousin....

mine.... cikai jer

1

Written on 9:06 PM by Amilrash


aku nyer....:0

0

Written on 6:19 PM by Amilrash

Ha ni maskot mira yg cun.... kiranyer mamat2 k-kar yang buat design ni memang GOOD. hehehe

0

Written on 6:18 PM by Amilrash

Aku pun pakai k-kar gak... huhuhuhu

0

Written on 6:12 PM by Amilrash

Aku memang minat K-Kar... kalu ader saper2 minat gak leh la contact aku... no cam yg atas tu gakkk.....

Minah Oh Minah Sekolah Lagi Tuh...

0

Written on 5:45 PM by Amilrash

Minah Oh Minah

0

Written on 5:45 PM by Amilrash

Sprint Skyline Lost (Sepang)

0

Written on 5:40 PM by Amilrash

Sprint Test Haram (Trangganu)

0

Written on 5:40 PM by Amilrash

Sprint Test (Trangganu)

0

Written on 5:40 PM by Amilrash

TURBOS VS. NITROUS

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Written on 12:49 AM by Amilrash


Moran has raced nitrous'd cars for years, but it's not hard to see his logic in running a turbo car. He said, "Not long ago, the rules for street car racing had the turbo cars weighing less than the nitrous cars for the same cubic inches, so guys started experimenting with turbocharged engines. A couple of years ago, the turbo guys wouldn't have been able to make the reliable power they do today because the electronic controls didn't exist.

But thanks to John Meaney, who created the aftermarket Fel-Pro electronic engine control module, these turbo cars can be tuned to the ninth degree. "The only problem to the turbo development has been that as the turbo cars got faster, the sanctioning bodies made them weigh the same as the nitrous'd cars. The turbo engine is more repeatable. It is not as violent in the way it builds combustion pressure as compared to a nitrous engine. Because of this, the turbo engine is easier on parts, sparing piston ring lands, bearings, and such.

Car Rim Sizes And Wheel Materials

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Written on 12:15 AM by Amilrash


Car rims have been on the market for some time now but their popularity continues to increase. Through movements such as hip hop culture, as well as their appearance in mainstream music videos and Hollywood movies custom wheels have definitely taken a spotlight in terms off "the" car accessory of choice for when you want to make your car stand out and claim king on the streets.

Just like other car accessories when it comes to picking out car rims you'll have a wide array of options to look at including wheel materials and rim sizes.

Car rim sizes are not to be overlooked as not all sizes and models will fit properly with your car and current tire size. Before you even get into shopping for your wheels you need to either go visit a mechanic or take your car into a specialist to find out exactly what size and style will be able to work with your model of car as well as what would suit your driving patterns and goals.

Wheels sizes for compact vehicles will be about 13inches and that number will just continue to grow for larger cars like SUVs where 24 or 25 inch wheels will be a bit more commonplace.

Another term you'll start to hear about as you look into getting the right size rims for your car or truck is "Plus Sizing". This just refers to when the rims are actually getting bigger in relation to the current tire size. It can provide and amazing look and now even major automobile companies can be found offering plus sizing on their stock vehicles. Plus sizing not only gives your wheels a bigger visual impact but it can help you out when it comes to handling and control of your car.

So what about rim materials? There are also different materials to choose from when it comes to materials. Not only will different materials demand higher or lower prices but they will also affect car performance.

Chrome and Alloy wheels are probably the most popular materials being used to make car rims on the market at the moment. Alloy is the material that most are made of when you buy them at the dealership. They are light, fairly easy to keep clean, and aren't usually too expensive. They are a good all around rim for doing your daily driving and getting around with ease.

Then you have the heavier and flashier chrome rims. Many specialized wheels are made out of chrome because of the beautiful shine and luster they give off. Chrome will really help your vehicle stand out. If you are thinking about buying custom chrome rims you will need to think about price because a nice set of chromes will cost you a pretty penny.

Hari Pertama... heeeheeee

1

Written on 12:02 AM by Amilrash

Selamat Datang.... Terima kasih kerana melawat blog saya ini....